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Federal law only requires a background check when the seller is a licensed gun dealer, leaving all other sales — like unlicensed gun sales negotiated over the.

It was in that the Ministry of Environment and Forests formally notified fuel specifications. To address the high pollution in metro cities, 0. The same has been reduced to 0. There is a need completely align the fuel properties with Europeon fuel quality so that vehicles can meet BS VI emission norms and also the durability requirement. In India, currently only transport vehicles, that is, vehicles used for hire or reward are required to undergo periodic fitness certification.

The large population of personalised vehicles are not yet covered by any such mandatory requirement. Inadequate and poor quality of road surface leads to increased vehicle operation costs, thereby increased pollution. The need for an integrated holistic approach for controlling vehicular emissions cannot be over-emphasised.

NEA | Air Pollution Regulations

More importantly, the auto and oil industries need to come together for evolving fuel quality standards and vehicular technology to meet the air quality targets. Environmental Imperatives Safety Requirements Competitive Pressures Customer Expectations There is a strong interlinkage amongst all these forces of change influencing the automobile industry. During the late s, the City of Los Angeles and later the state required vehicle inspections to ensure that pollution control equipment was operating properly and hadn't been tampered.

This controversial inspection and maintenance law evolved into today's SmogCheck program, administered by the state Bureau of Automotive Repair. Although the program has achieved some success, environmentalists and the federal government have criticized it for not being effective enough, and controversy still surrounds the debate over how to improve it.

In the s, regulators took the first step in cleaning up motor vehicle fuels by reducing the amount of highly photochemically reactive olefins in gasoline. Starting in , the federal government also phased out the use of lead in gasoline, a toxic pollutant that in high levels can cause behavioral problems, learning disabilities and even brain damage in children.

Due to the phaseout, lead levels in the Southland have not exceeded state or federal health standards since During the s and s, California environmental agencies advocated the use of methanol and natural gas instead of gasoline, which could cut a vehicle's smog-forming emissions in half. Although methanol never became a dominant alternate fuel -- in part because its price has remained somewhat higher than gasoline -- the threat of an alternative fuel mandate motivated oil companies to significantly clean up gasoline.

In spite of dramatic reductions from both auto and industry emissions, the metropolitan Los Angeles area still has the worst air quality in the nation. In the early s, ARCO introduced the first reformulated gasoline with fewer smog-forming and toxic ingredients. Environmental Protection Agency have since required all oil companies to develop and sell even cleaner gasoline. In , CARB adopted a landmark regulation targeting both vehicles and the fuels used in them.

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CARB officials subsequently delayed the mandate until after oil and auto manufacturers argued that introducing electric vehicles too soon, before the technology was perfected, could alienate consumers. In the early s, residents and air quality officials in San Bernardino and Riverside counties became discontent with the air pollution control efforts of their neighbors to the west in Los Angeles and Orange counties. Smog respects no political boundaries.

Then, as today, most air pollution originated from vehicles and businesses in Los Angeles and Orange counties. The region's westerly sea breezes blow most of that pollution into San Bernardino and Riverside counties each afternoon, leaving residents of the inland valleys to suffer the brunt of smog's effects.

Although most studies indicated that smog drifted inland from the west, Los Angeles county officials maintained they had no responsibility to clean up pollution in San Bernardino and Riverside counties, Camarena said. The regional conflict spurred the Los Angeles County League of Women Voters, led by Gladys Meade, to call for a regional air pollution control agency that encompassed all four counties in the Los Angeles basin. It took more than five years of political battles to make the idea a reality.

In , air quality officials in the four counties formed a short-lived, voluntary regional agency called the Southern California Air Pollution Control District. The agency's fatal flaw was that any county could withdraw at any time, sabotaging a regional control effort. The Legislature twice passed bills to create a mandatory regional agency, and former Gov.

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Ronald Reagan vetoed them both. Finally, former Gov. In , James M. In spite of progress in cleaning the air, businesses and even air quality regulators at the time generally believed it was impossible to achieve air quality standards in Los Angeles. The problem was too severe, the cost of cleanup prohibitive and the technology needed was nowhere in sight, they said. Lents proposed a bold and revolutionary goal: to develop a strategy that would actually clean up the nation's worst air pollution.

Even some of his own staff were skeptical. Lents directed the development of the agency's first Air Quality Management Plan to lay out a step-by-step blueprint identifying the specific control measures needed to attain clean air standards by Achieving clean air would take years of work and major technological breakthroughs, but it was no longer a vague pipe dream.

California Air Resources Board

The plan was the first to call for a number of advanced technologies, including zero-emission electric vehicles, and to specify that clean air could not be achieved in the Southland without them. AQMD's clean air plan put pressure on other agencies to adopt regulations to require development of the new technology needed to achieve clean air standards, Lents said.

Until the s, conventional wisdom and federal law directed air quality officials to focus primarily on controlling six pollutants: ozone, suspended particles, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and lead. In , the state Legislature required major emitters of toxic pollutants to assess and make public the health risk of their emissions.

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The program has been judged a success since dozens of companies have voluntarily reduced their toxic emissions below the threshold to avoid the public relations embarrassment of conducting such a meeting. AQMD also adopted measures in the late s to control specific toxic pollutants, such as hexavalent chromium and asbestos, as well as chlorofluorocarbons known to destroy the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer. Seeking new areas for pollution reductions -- and cheaper ways to accomplish it -- air quality officials in the late s and early s moved beyond traditional factory smokestack and vehicle tailpipe controls to transportation and market incentive programs.

It required employers with more than employees to offer tangible incentives to employees to carpool and ride public transit to work.


For eight years, the program achieved marked success, reducing , trips per day. But businesses chafed at trying to change employee behavior. AQMD refocused the program's emphasis in from carpooling to a broader goal of reducing vehicle emissions. An extensive menu of options was offered under the rule.

In , the Legislature required AQMD to phase out its mandatory program, if voluntary ridesharing shows equivalent emission reductions. The severe economic recession of the early s spotlighted the need to find the most cost-effective measures possible to reduce emissions. During that time, the San Francisco-based California Council for Environmental and Economic Balance met with AQMD officials and discussed the use of market incentive measures to allow greater flexibility and lower cost in air pollution control.

The program includes about of the largest emitters of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides, combustion byproducts that form ozone and particulate pollution.

Emission Norms

Rather than regulating each polluting piece of equipment and specifying the exact kind of pollution control technology required, RECLAIM imposes an overall emissions limit on each facility. The limit declines each year, so that by , the facilities in sum will have reduced 77 tons of nitrogen oxide emissions and 16 tons of sulfur oxides per day. The business is free to reduce emissions any way it wishes, giving it the flexibility to choose the most cost-effective method.

If a facility reduces its emissions below its limit in a given year, it earns RECLAIM trading credits that can be sold to a facility unable or unwilling to make the changes necessary to meet its target that year. The plant, to be built at ARCO's Carson refinery, will recover propylene from crude oil to make polypropylene, a material used in a wide range of consumer plastics including carpeting, upholstery, clothing and twine.

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During the recovery process, ARCO will remove sulfur and other polluting byproducts that are now burned, thereby reducing sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions by several hundred tons a year. AQMD is expanding its market incentive programs to include area-wide pollution sources, such as home hot water heaters. The agency also is developing a broader trading program that will further enhance the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of emissions trading. Finishing the job of cleaning up Southland smog will require major advances in technology.

In , AQMD established its Technology Advancement Office to help private industry speed up the development of low- and zero-emission technologies. Major developments include:. Fuel cells produce electricity using hydrogen and air, emitting only water, heat and carbon dioxide. AQMD is supporting their development. Instead, manufacturers found a way to reformulate their products to meet the new standard in less than 15 months. Remote sensing uses an infrared beam to instantaneously gauge the level of tailpipe emissions from a passing vehicle.

AQMD also is contributing to research to develop a liquid natural gas-powered locomotive. Diesel locomotives in the region are responsible for more than 31 tons per day of nitrogen oxide emissions.